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The Pathfinder N°33

NOVEMBER 2020

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L'Eclaireur N°32

NOVEMBER 2020

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L'Eclaireur N°31

SEPTEMBER 2020

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The Scout N°30

SEPTEMBER 2020

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L'Eclaireur N°29

JUNE 2020

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The Scout N°28

MARCH 2020

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L'Eclaireur N°27

FEBRUARY 2020

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The Scout N°26

DECEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°25

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L'Eclaireur N°24

DECEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°23

NOVEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°22

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The Scout N°21

OCTOBER 2019

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The Scout N°20

OCTOBER 2019

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The Scout N°19

SEPTEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°18

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The Scout N°17

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The Scout N°16

JULY 2019

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The Scout N°15

JUNE 2019

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The Scout N°14

JUNE 2019

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Number 22 - 04 November 2019

The Pathfinder is a subject-oriented watch for prospective studies on air-land operations, currently conducted by the Command Doctrine and Training Centre (CDEC).

This document is based solely on unclassified sources. Its purpose is to provide a quick fortnightly overview of the information disseminated in the media and likely to be of interest to the world of defence. The briefs collected are limited to raw summaries of the documents analysed and cross-checked whenever possible by interviews conducted by its editors. It is therefore up to each reader to contextualise this information, particularly when it comes from official foreign sources, according to the use he or she wishes to make of it and the nature of the conclusions that he or she must draw from it.


"ADEX 2019: Hanwha defense unveil prototype of AS 21 Redback IFV'.

Janes, October 17, 2019

(source cross-checking)

At the Seoul International Aerospace and Defense Exhibition (ADEX) on October 17, 2019, the South Korean company Hanwha Defense unveiled a prototype of its AS21 Redback infantry fighting vehicle. The latter, along with Rheinmetall's Lynx KF41, has been shortlisted to participate in Phase 3 of the Australian Army's Land 400 program. The programme aims to provide up to 450 infantry combat vehicles and 17 support vehicles. With a crew of three, theAS21 Redback would weigh 42 tonnes and could carry up to eight soldiers. It would be an upgraded version of the IFV K21, in service with the Korean Army since 2009.


"Knees of Iron: Lockheed's ONYX Exoskeleton."

Breaking Defense, October 17, 2019

Video demonstration in the second "In the know" link.

(single source)

Developed by the American company Lockheed Martin, the ONYX exoskeleton is a robotic and motorized knee brace. It allows the soldier to learn about his physical condition. Bringing real added value for the dismounted soldier, this tool should lighten the load on the wearer's knee as well as on his quadriceps, allowing the soldier to continue to advance while limiting the risk of injury or physical exhaustion.


"Raytheon to Build a New 360 Radar for the US Army Patriot Air Defense Systems."

Defense Update, October 17, 2019

"Raytheon receives $384m US Army LTAMDS radar contract."

Army Technology, 18 October 2019

(source cross-checking)

The American company Raytheon has announced that it has been selected to supply theUS Army with its next generation of 360° anti-missile radars as part of the Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS ) programme. LTAMDS aims to extend airspace coverage, a significant improvement over the 120° detection capabilities of the Patriot system deployed since the 1980s.

Availability : 2022


"Rafael and Leonardo have delivered first trophy active protection system for US army M1A2 Abrams tank."

Army Recognition, 20 October 2019

(single source)

The result of industrial cooperation between the Israeli Rafael and the American Leonardo DRS, the Trophy active countermeasure protection system is said to have been integrated into the M1A2 Abrams tanks of theUS Army and Marine Corps. Developed in response to the proliferation of anti-armoured vehicle threats, Trophy would offer proven combat protection against rockets and missiles while locating and signaling the origin of fire for immediate response. As of 2011, the system would be integrated into the Israeli army's Merkava Mk3 and Mk4 tanks and Namer armoured personnel carriers.

Availability : Immediate


"ADEX 2019: Hanwha Defense, Hyundai Rotem display prototype HGVs."

Janes, October 21, 2019

(source cross-checking)

Hanwha Defense and Hyundai Rotem each presented a prototype Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for the South Korean Army at the ADEX 2019 international aerospace and defense exhibition. The Hanwha Defense prototype would weigh 940 kg for a payload of 169 kg and would include an electric propulsion system, four-wheel drive and an auxiliary power unit. The HSM would be equipped with a 5.56 calibre K3 machine gun and an electro-optical and infrared system with a thermal camera. The Hyundai Rotem Sherpa would be equipped with a 6×6 electric propulsion system.


"Kramp-Karrenbauer stoppt umstrittene Privatisierungspläne"

"Defense Minister Kramp-Karrenbauer halts controversial privatization plans."

Süddeutsche Zeitung, 17 October 2019

"German MoD announces Bundeswehr vehicle maintenance will not be privatized."

Jane's, October 21, 2019

(Source cross-checked)

German Defence Minister Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer has announced that the plan to privatise three Bundeswehr vehicle maintenance sites, initiated by her predecessor Ursula Von der Leyen in June 2018, will come to an end. These sites of the Heeresinstandsetzungslogistik (HIL), the German equivalent of the Land Industrial Maintenance Service (SMITer), should remain state property at least until 2025 and be the subject of an investment of 160 million euros by 2032.


"U.S. Wanting to Buy Fewer Chinooks Sees U.K., U.A.E. Buying More"

Bloomberg, 22 October 2019

(Source cross-checked)

According to Ryan McCarthy, US Secretary of the Army, Boeing is reportedly about to sell 14 CH-47 Chinook heavy transport helicopters to the United Kingdom and another 10 to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). These will be in addition to the 60 already in service in the British Army and 19 in the Emirati forces. The sale would save theUS Army $962 million over the fiscal year 2021-2024 by removing these 24 helicopters from the 68 it had to order from the manufacturer. These credits should be reallocated to the Future Vertical Lift program, which plans to replace the UH-60 Black Hawkhelicopters.


"IDF unveils 'Momentum Plan' to make it deadlier and faster, if it can pay for it"

Times of Israel, 24 October 2019

(Source cross-checked)

Israeli Army Chief of Staff Aviv Kochavi has announced a five-year plan to modernize the army. Called "Amplitude"(Tenufa in Hebrew), the plan provides for the acquisition of additional tactical drones (notably Hermes 450s), precision-guided missiles and air defence batteries. Priorities include improving the ability of military intelligence to locate targets in enemy territory, improving personal equipment and enhancing combat training in urban areas. The plan should come into force on1 January 2020.

Availability : 2020-2025


"Quantum Stealth, a new material that would make humans and objects invisible."

Science and the Future, October 24, 2019

Video demonstration in the second "In the know" link.

(single source)

The Canadian company Hyperstealth Biotechnology, which specializes in military camouflage, has developed a new material capable of making any person or object behind it invisible. Called Quantum Stealth, it is based on a lenticular imaging process that plays on the refraction of light by modifying the curvature of the material so as to twist the rays of light to blur the objects behind it. It would also be able to block thermal, infrared and ultraviolet signals.


"Algerian army has developed new anti-tank armored vehicle based on French AML."

Army recognition, 27 October 2019

(single source)

The Algerian army is said to have developed a new anti-tank armoured vehicle based on the French AML-60 self-propelled machine gun. The AML-60 turret would have been suppressed in favour of a rectangular turret with an anti-tank missile launcher of Russian origin on each side. It could be armed with two types of Russian missiles: the AT-5 Spandrel and the AT-14 Spriggan.


"Denmark purchases 4 additional Nexter CAESAR 8x8 self-propelled howitzer"

Army recognition, 29 October 2019

(single source)

The French company Nexter announced that on 11 October it had signed a contract with the Danish Ministry of Defence for the delivery of four new CAESAR 8x8 artillery systems. In 2017, the government had already ordered 15 CAESAR 8x8s which should be delivered in the course of 2020. Equipped with a 155 mm gun, the CAESAR 8x8 has a carrying capacity of 36 rounds of ammunition as well as high ballistic and mine protection level 2A and 2B STANAG 4569.



"Florence Parly, Minister of the Armed Forces, welcomes the delivery of the first 100 standard 2.1 tactical 4x4 vehicles".

Ministry of the Armed Forces - Directorate General of Armament, 15 October 2019

(single source)

On September 23rd, the Army received the first 100 standard 2.1 air-transportable 4x4 tactical vehicles (VT4s). These vehicles integrate the information and communication systems in service in the armed forces (two PR4G stations, SITEL tablet, GPS DAGR) and will be deployable in external operations as soon as sufficient stocks of spare parts have been built up. 500 standard 2.1 VT4s will be delivered before the end of 2019, in accordance with the military programming law. This law sets a target of 4,380 new tactical 4x4 vehicles in 2023, including 3,980 for the Army.

Availability : Current


"Armament: Agreement between Paris and Berlin on SCAF, MGCS and arms exports"

La Tribune, October 16, 2019

Élysée - Franco-German Declaration of Toulouse

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

(source cross-checking)

On 16 October in Toulouse, France and Germany issued a joint statement in which the Main Ground Combat System (MGCS) programme was discussed. The French Minister of the Armed Forces, Florence Parly, and her German counterpart, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, undertook to sign a contract to study the architecture of the programme in January 2020. A letter of intent was also signed between the industrialists involved in the programme (Nexter, KMW and Rheinmetall). The content of these various agreements has not yet been specified.


"Communiqué: Army Minister Florence Parly welcomes Danish commitment to Operation Barkhane"

Ministry of the Armed Forces, 25 October 2019

(single source)

The Danish Parliament has approved the deployment of two AW101 Merlin heavy transport helicopters in Gao from December 2019, as well as 70 military personnel to maintain and operate them. In a press release, the Minister of the Armed Forces, Florence Parly, welcomed this new manifestation of the Danish commitment to the fight against terrorism in the Sahel, which strengthens the military resources of the French Barkhane force. She also recalled Denmark's commitment to the European Intervention Initiative (EII) launched in June 2018.



"The State of War"

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, March 18, 2019

In this article from the Carnegie Foundation, Rachel Kleinfeld and Robert Muggah explore new forms of conflictuality. They observe that, compared to the mass conflicts of the twentieth century, the number of victims of conventional warfare has declined relatively less since 1945 than the number of victims of criminal violence (drug trafficking, etc.). However, the authors note an increase in the number of deaths due to inter- and intra-state conflicts since 2010. This can be explained by the declining effectiveness of traditional pacification tools (ceasefires, negotiations, peace agreements or peacekeeping operations). At the same time, combatants are reportedly increasingly drawn from criminal groups or local militias rather than regular armies. Faced with this situation, Kleinfeld and Muggan urge international organizations to promote diplomacy and various forms of mediation between states and these new actors. One of the challenges we will have to overcome is to understand how war evolves in relation to the increase in global crime.


"European views on defence"

Observatoire Économique de la Défense (OED), October 2019

(Source cross-checked)

In June 2019, the European Commission published a "Eurobarometer" survey on the opinions of European Union citizens on defence and security. The result shows that the armed forces are the institutions in which Europeans have the most confidence. 82% of the French say they have "rather confidence" in this institution. The phenomenon is pronounced among people over 55 years of age, the self-employed and those who consider themselves to belong to the middle or upper middle class. Confidence in the army is thus 10 points higher than confidence in the police (72%) and 22 points higher than confidence in regional or local public authorities (60%).


"Islam and Radicalization in Western Armies."

IRSEM, 14 October 2019

In her study, Elyamine Settoul focuses on forms of radicalization that directly or indirectly affect the Western military environment. The author's analysis demonstrates the existence of a real ambivalence, the army being both the preferred target of jihadists and at the same time a source of interest before and during radicalization for these individuals in search of narcissistic valorization, fraternity or behavioral structuring. Western armies can also be a space for radicalisation, as some cases in the United States demonstrate, if the institution or hierarchy is not sufficiently attentive. The author identifies three categories of radicalization: jihadists attracted to armies, passed through armies or radicalized while they were there. The author concludes with four recommendations: to develop consultation between the various actors likely to detect signs of radicalization, to deepen inter-religious reflection within the security forces by identifying areas of tension likely to break cohesion, to set up a monitoring and evaluation tool on issues of discrimination and, finally, to create a working group to promote good practices.



The Peugeot P4: nearly 40 years of service

CDEC, Studies and Foresight Division, October 2019

The delivery of the first 100 VT4 tactical vehicles to the French Army is an opportunity to look back over the history of the Peugeot P4, the main light off-road vehicle used since 1981. It was in the late 1960s that the French Army expressed the need to replace the Jeep Hotchkiss that the Americans had been supplying to France since the end of the Second World War. The institution wanted the vehicle to be able to carry four people with their kit and a radio, and to be air transportable and airdroppable. After many delays, the design was launched at the end of the 1970s as part of a partnership between Peugeot and Mercedez-Benz. The vehicle entered operational service in 1981. There is a variant of the P4, for special forces, with greater firepower thanks to a MIT 50 (12.7 mm) and AN F1 (7.62 mm) machine gun. In 2015, the army still had about 2,500 P4s. Its complete replacement by the VT4 is planned until the end of the military programming law.


"The invention of the mobile mortar"

Theatrum Belli, 28 October 2019

Ministry of the Armed Forces, 10 April 2015

This month the information site Theatrum belli recalls the genesis of the infantry mortar in 1915. In the course ofu First World War Positional warfare is a new form of combat for soldiers and the infantry is demanding equipment enabling it to carry out short-range curved fire. The artillery tries to meet this demand but the mortars it develops are not suitable for infantry combat because they are too heavy and not very mobile. Private Edgar Brandt, mobilized in the 154th Infantry Regiment of Nancy, drew a sketch of a portable 60 mm pneumatic howitzer based on a Hotchkiss machine gun tripod mount from 1915 onwards. He quickly presented a prototype to the military authorities who, convinced, ordered 500 pieces. The pneumatic innovation made it possible to fire, more discreetly, a small-calibre shell up to about 400 m. Although named "howitzer" this weapon is indeed a mortar because it is loaded from above.

 


 
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