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Armed Forces, National Education, Higher Education, Municipalities, Businesses

G2S File No. 25
Defense & management
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The links between Defence and National Education are important and numerous, but their effectiveness in instilling the spirit of defence and knowledge in the Armed Forces is limited.The links between Defence and National Education are important and numerous, but their effectiveness in instilling the defence spirit and knowledge of the Armed Forces depends on the "pedagogical freedom" of teachers, driven by individual initiative, and on the capacity of the Armed Forces to encourage and respond to these initiatives.

These links are important because the National Education system is a huge institutional body (1,145,300 people, including 870,900 teachers; 12,875,650 students and apprentices for primary and secondary education20 ). To these figures should be added Higher Education {90,900 teachers21 and 2.7 million students22) and Agriculture (190,000 students). These three institutions are the melting pots in which political figures are built.23 of the citizens and therefore the face of the France of the future and its perception of its army.

These Iiens are formally solid and can lead to many forms of cooperation. The pillars are the interministerial protocol of 20 May 2016.24 with !'Éducation nationale and the protocol of April 20, 201225 with higher education. Two comprehensive documents in which the objectives to be achieved are listed26s, the actors involved and the actions to be taken. To this are added the implementing texts of the Universal National Service {SNU), the final stage of the Citizen's Journey, whose masterpiece is also !'National Education. Parcours citoyen27 which, let's not forget, includes a defence education component.

However, implementation is then dependent on the exercise of teachers' " pedagogical freedom ", guaranteed by Article L912-1-1 of the Education Code.28. To be clear, the 961,800 teachers must then be convinced of the need to develop defence education (although not all of them are obliged to do so, given the subjects they teach) and to call on the Ministry of the Armed Forces to provide them with pragmatic expertise. And the armies must be in a position to respond to their requests.

Faced with this mass potentially moving towards the "spirit of defence" that armies weigh?

Few, only 206,317 military personnel of all ranks and 61,827 civilian personnel of all categories. The horizon narrows even more when we know that military and civilian personnel are concentrated in units that leave vast territories with no military presence other than that of a Departmental Military Delegate {DMD) and his deputy {see map of the distribution of defence bases on national territory29). Moreover, with respect to units, in addition to being subject to a continuous cycle of operational projections, making it difficult for them to be present in schools, not all of their personnel are necessarily willing or confident in their ability to testify on behalf of the defence.

Alongside the Institut des Hautes Etudes de Défense Nationale (IHEDN), whose mission is to disseminate the spirit of defence in the Nation, a major player in the military presence within the Nation is therefore above all the OTIAD chain (Organisation Territoriale Interarmées de Défense), with about a hundred officers: the DMD. In theory, they have to respond to requests that could come from the 61,900 schools and secondary schools and 237 higher education establishments.30. They also have, if the armies want and must be proactive, to arouse educational interest, which is the only way to create a dialogue, in the conscience of teachers, with educational freedom.

Certainly, the armies are doing the best they can to keep these texts alive. But their capacities should be strengthened, especially in the field, so as not to leave the spirit of defence of a huge part of our youth, citizens, voters and decision-makers in the making, fallow.

It is therefore proposed that the above-mentioned defence-national education-agriculture and defence-higher education protocols be energized by strengthening the OTIAD chain with a strong measure:

- The creation of a large reserve unit {called for example: Citizen Defence College - CCD) with elementary units in each department under the direction of the DMD. Armed by experienced military volunteers released from the cadres. They would have the following mission:

  • To spread the spirit of defense and teach the contingencies of military engagement in schools and higher education institutions at the initiative of the professors.
  • But also in the nation by making itself available to defence correspondents.31 municipalities for substantive or opportunity conferences.
  • And again at the service of the recruitment chain (CIRFA) to support them in their interventions with testimonials;
  • This reserve could also be used in consular education establishments {150 establishments with 150,000 pupils32).
  • And those of continuing education33 for which 4,915,054 persons were registered in 2017 with a wide range of objectives, including the possibility of a citizenship and defence training course.

- This large unit would have a light structure at the central level, with mainly coordination, quality control and above all preparation of teaching resources. These resources would be made available to CCD stakeholders, but also to associations and the many officers who are personally involved in the defence and illustration of armies and often lack information.

- This large unit could integrate, as constituted bodies, associations with a solid national structure that would also accept this mission and would then receive a "defence training" label. Associations of former military personnel, among others, would be very suitable for this mission.

Opinion is volatile and malleable and can, with a lack of understanding of military operational contingencies and without the tools of critical analysis, blindly abandon itself to fate. The armies must proactively work towards national education, higher education and the nation as a whole. Mobilising the resources of reservists and defence associations will enable them to carry out this immense and vital work.



[21] HRD Note n9 September 2019 Year 2018 1183816.pdf

[22] /cid144368/staff-in-education-superior-in-2018-2019.html

23] Politics in its relationship to organized society.

[24] official.html?cid bo=104124


26] This partnership aims to achieve tangible results in four areas:

- The knowledge, skills and capabilities expected of teachers in defence and national security through pre-service and in-service training.

- The knowledge, skills and abilities expected of students in the context of the school curriculum, first and foremost those that constitute the "common core" and the promotion of the values that underpin the spirit of defence and national security.

- The deepening of this education in the higher cycle.

- Recognition and encouragement of the commitment of young people, teachers and other personnel of the educational community.




[30] /cid4 9 705/institutions-teaching-teachers-superior-and-research-liss-. Html


[32] library/get file ?uuid=b6ea80bf-lf3 l-4 lcb-bfc9-4ea0a4fc28a7&groupld=l0909

[33] vocational training.pdf

Title : Armed Forces, National Education, Higher Education, Municipalities, Businesses
Author (s) : Le GDI (2S) Jean-Claude ALLARD