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The Scout n° 47 - April 2022


Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

The Role of Emotions in Military Strategy

Spring 2022.

In this article, the author seeks to pave the way for further research on the role of emotions in military strategy. In this sense, he identifies three areas worthy of study: the character of war and emotional stimuli, the influence of emotions on strategic choices, and the relationship between emotional manipulation and the pursuit of victory.

Credit: Jonathan van SMIT

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Data transport will decide the next conflict, not hypersonics

Craig Miller, C4ISRNET.
March 2, 2022

For the author, the strategic advantage in future conflicts will not come from hypersonic missiles or next-generation aircraft. Rather, it will come from the capabilities of capturing and processing the data that flows across the battlefield in real time and across all domains. It is the goal of the Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) doctrinal concept, developed by the Department of Defense (DoD), to address this need through resilient data transport networks.

Credit: Defense Dept. photo

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Send in the Quadcopters: Arm Ukrainian Citizens with Simple Drones

Zak Kallenborn, Defense One
March 3, 2022.
The author believes that Westerners should provide Ukrainian citizens with civilian drones. The mobility of such equipment would enhance the Ukrainian military's patrol and reconnaissance capabilities to better plan its operations. A lethal use, on the model of the drones modified by the Islamic State, could also be considered.
Credit: U.S. Marine Corps photo by Pfc. Sarah PYSHER

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Active Protection Systems and Suite Controllers for Combat Vehicles

4 March 2022.
The author describes in great detail the active protection systems developed in Europe and the United States to improve the defensive capabilities of modern combat vehicles. The improvement of armor is now reaching its limits. With the help of sensors and electronic(soft kill) or physical(hard kill) countermeasures, these technologies improve the survivability of vehicles. Approaching munitions are thus decoyed or destroyed before they reach their target.

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Guerrillas, Revolutionaries, Insurgents, and Militias and Mafiosi: the Grim Threats of Irregular Strategy

Andrew Maher, Modern War Institute.
24 February 2022.
The author discusses the importance of terminology in Western strategies for fighting non-state actors. For him, it is essential to stop talking about the war on terror, which does not allow for the specificities of each actor to be taken into account. He thus proposes a taxonomy based on the strategy of non-state actors, using the terms guerrilla, revolutionary, insurgent, and militia/mafia, or GRIM threats. This taxonomy aims to develop intervention strategies that are more adapted to the different types of actors and their evolution.

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Countering Hybrid Warfare: Mapping Social Contracts to Reinforce Societal Resiliency in Estonia and Beyond

Salamah Magnuson, Morgan Keay and Kimberly Metcalf, Texas National Security Review.
March 2022.

In this article, the authors examine the importance of the social contract in building resilience to hybrid threats. Their study of Estonian society shows that it is necessary to strengthen the sense of belonging of Estonians of Russian origin by recognizing their dual identity as legitimate. Without this, their trust in institutions is weakened, which makes them more vulnerable to information manipulation, and consequently reduces the country's resilience to the Kremlin's hybrid threats.

Credit: Crilly, 2021

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Aligning the Marine Corps Warfighting Lab's Vision

Kimberly Underwood, AFCEA.
1 March 2022.

This article outlines the US Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory 's primary leadership objective for 2022: the design of the future infantry battalion. This is a cross-cutting mission, aimed at improving Marine Corps interoperability both jointly and with allied nations. The goal is to develop a battalion capable of operating from lighter platforms and specifically designed to operate in a highly contested environment. This project is especially critical because infantry is the fundamental combat component of the Marine Corps.


Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Intelligence disclosures on the Ukraine crisis and beyond

Jake Harrington, War on the rocks.
March1, 2022.

In a context of generalized access to open source information, the collapse of the State's monopoly on intelligence has never been so obvious. It is in an environment highly saturated by information that Washington is revealing information on the Russian invasion of Ukraine. From now on, it is a question of intelligence agencies apprehending the springs of the "warof meanings" in order to best articulate the military capabilities and political intentions of the adversary, with the aim of providing a relevant analysis.


Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

All strategies short of war: getting the most out of the gray zone", Modern War Institute

Sidharth Kaushal, Modern War Institute.
28 Feb 2022.

Although open warfare has returned to Europe, states continue to compete aggressively below the threshold of high-intensity warfare. The author definessub-threshold competition as competitive behavior that does not involve the use of lethal force. Conducting psychological actions against the adversary, through the manipulation of the perception field, is a key function of sub-threshold competition. However, it is a fluid concept that depends on national decision-making bodies and their respective military doctrines as well as perceptions of the situation and the adversary.

Cr says: U.S. Marine Corps photo by Staff Sgt. Donald HOLBERT/Released

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Being Open about intelligence

Sir Humphrey, Thin pinstriped line.
February 19, 2022.

The situation in Ukraine has demonstrated the power ofopen source information that can be used to easily disseminate information to the general public. The widespread use of satellite imagery to show troop movements and the presence of Russian forces represents a capability that, twenty or thirty years ago, would certainly have been classified. Thus, the great challenge will be to ensure that decision-makers have timely access to a properly assessed and usable product, a rapid response to deception or disinformation operations. Finally, this open source intelligence revolution leads to a loss of the element of strategic surprise and raises the question of whether states can still rely on the concept of surprise attack as a military strategy.

Credit: DoD photo by Staff Sgt. Steve CUSHMAN, U.S. Marine Corps/Released

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

The Metaverse: a new domain of warfare?

Aaron Bazin, Small Wars Journal.
March 3, 2022.
The metaverse, a concept used in the book The Virtual Samurai by Neal Stevenson and in the movie Ready Player One, designates the interconnection between the physical and virtual worlds leading to a redefinition of the warrior confrontation. The author wonders what would be the consequences for future combat of a world where citizens would not share a common perception of reality.
Credit: NATO

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Marine Corps launches new littoral unit that US adversaries reportedly hate

Philip Athey, Defense News.
March 3, 2022.

The Marine Corps has created a new unit, the "3rd Marine Littoral Regiment," located in Hawaii. Characterized by stealth and mobility, the new regiment will consist of an infantry battalion, an anti-aircraft battalion and a logistics battalion. ThisUSMC unit will be able to carry out cyber-attacks, and attack enemy ships, especially in the perspective of an armed confrontation with China.

Source : European Security & Defence

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Urban warfare expert offers Ukrainians tips on battling Russians in close combat

Max Hauptman, Task and Purpose.
28 February 2022.

In the context of escalation between Russia and Ukraine, Max Hauptman analyzes defensive tactics specific to urban combat. He argues that the cities of Kiev and Kharkiv provide an advantageous operational environment that not only reduces the adversary's visibility, but also challenges the effectiveness of traditional strategic tools.

Source: Modern War Institute

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

The two debates in military circles the war in Ukraine could help settle

March 2, 2022,.

The Russian invasion of Ukraine highlights two major issues for armies. On the one hand, the need to re-examine the issue of urban combat in a context marked by urbanization, and on the other hand, the need to take into account the growing role of civilian populations in conflicts. Current events already offer several examples of the symbolic and tactical importance of the inhabitants of Kiev in terms of resistance and defense against the Russian army.

Credit: Staff Sgt. Christopher B. DENNIS

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

The militant drone threat is no longer new. Why does it still feel novel?

Austin Doctor, Modern War Institute.
24 February 2022.

According to Austin Doctor, the use of drones is a persistent threat capable of providing tactical superiority in the airspace and remains difficult and costly to neutralize. Progress in terms of anti-drone infrastructure and devices is currently slow and points to the need to develop an upstream countermeasure based on supply chain destabilization.

Source: Rand Corporation, February 9, 2022

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

The army is full of inspired and innovative thinkers-it just needs a way to leverage them

Jeffrey E. Horn, Modern War Institute.
9 February 2022.

Lack of institutional support is often a barrier to innovation in the military. The U.S. Army has therefore set up aStrategic Collaboration Innovation Program to help bring together military organizations, industry, think tanks and universities. This program aims to promote creativity by linking the strategic needs of the military with the skills of its various partners.


Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Army electric vehicles goals 'pretty darn achievable' but challenges remain

Andrew Eversden, Breaking Defense.
March 2, 2022.

The transition to electric or hybrid vehicles is a priority in the U.S. Army's climate strategy. In addition to being environmentally friendly, this transition has operational advantages: electric vehicles allow for a reduction in logistical load and their silent mobility could be useful during reconnaissance missions. However, they have shortcomings in terms of energy storage capacity.


Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Sharpening the Spear: Moving SOF's Operating Concept Beyond the GWOT

Gordon Richmond, Modern War Institute.
23 February 2022.
Counterinsurgency and counterterrorism wars in the Middle East have strengthened the place of Special Forces in the U.S. military. However, the largesse they have enjoyed over the past two decades is not likely to continue. This reality must be reflected in the new operational concept, which must also be more integrated with joint combat. Finally, the author explores the potential role of the four components of US Special Forces in the changing security environment.
Credit: US ARMY

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

The Lieutenant and the Interagency: Linking Tactics to Strategy in Integrated Deterrence

Kimberly Underwood, Modern War Institute.
17 February 2022.

The author finds a lack of preparation for civilian interactions in the training of U.S. junior officers and their subordinates. Encounters with civilians are intrinsic to counterinsurgency and stabilization operations, so U.S. armed forces cannot do without appropriate operational preparation. Consideration of the operational environment, civil-military interactions, and interagency coordination will link tactics to the U.S. strategy of integrated deterrence.

extract poster film "green sun

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Cyber Ethics: On the Use of Ethical Considerations in Hybrid Warfare

Philipp von Wussow, The Defence Horizon.
28 February 2022.
Cyber ethics is defined in this article as the pursuit of responsible action in cyber warfare. After contextualizing cyber ethics in relation to international law and situating cyber within the concept of hybrid threats, the author examines the objectives of ethical considerations in cyber warfare. He highlights their strategic and normative implications, through the prism of just war theory in cyber space.
extract poster film "green sun

Image: Mstyslav Chernov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Killing without conscience

Black Mirror, season 3, episode 5.

The scriptwriters explore the track of the augmented soldier. He has a brain implant that amplifies his visual and sound perceptions thanks to augmented reality. A unit is thus sent to track down degenerate humans with a bestial appearance. After several contacts and malfunctions with his implant, one of the soldiers discovers that the appearance of these "cockroaches" is the product of the technology embedded in his brain. They are in fact human, but hunted by the government for eugenic reasons.
The Pathfinder is an open-source newsletter, produced by the editors of the CDEC's Studies and Foresight Unit. Its objective is to support the prospective work on air-land combat, conducted within the framework of the Forum de la pensée mili-terre. The short reports are a synthesis of raw information; it is up to the reader to put them into context.