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The Pathfinder N°33

NOVEMBER 2020

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L'Eclaireur N°32

NOVEMBER 2020

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L'Eclaireur N°31

SEPTEMBER 2020

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The Scout N°30

SEPTEMBER 2020

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L'Eclaireur N°29

JUNE 2020

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The Scout N°28

MARCH 2020

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L'Eclaireur N°27

FEBRUARY 2020

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The Scout N°26

DECEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°25

DECEMBER 2019

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L'Eclaireur N°24

DECEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°23

NOVEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°22

NOVEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°21

OCTOBER 2019

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The Scout N°20

OCTOBER 2019

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The Scout N°19

SEPTEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°18

SEPTEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°17

SEPTEMBER 2019

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The Scout N°16

JULY 2019

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The Scout N°15

JUNE 2019

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The Scout N°14

JUNE 2019

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"U.S. Army wants a new 360-degree counter-drone system."

Defence Blog, 14 April 2019

(single source)

TheUS Army has published a request for information from industry with a view to developing a 360° system capable of detecting drones weighing less than 10 kg. Such a system would be designed to be integrated into the Precision Fire Control(PFCR) type radars on boardUS Army vehicles. The vehicles concerned would be the Humvees, Bradley, Stryker and Abrams tanks. The system desired by theUS Army should include small, light and inexpensive sensors. In addition, the system should be capable of detecting, identifying and neutralising low-level UAVs, including swarm formations (up to ten simultaneous targets).

Availability : N/A

"Aegis Ashore missile defence system in Romania undergoes scheduled update"

NATO, 11 April 2019

(single source)

According to a NATO press release, the United States has deployed a medium-range (200 km) THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) air defence unit to Deveselu military base in Romania. The THAAD unit, under NATO control, will remain deployed until the completion of the overhaul and maintenance of the Romanian Aegis Ashore Romania Air Detection System. The US THAAD mobile air defence system is capable of intercepting ballistic missiles during the final phase of their flight.

Availability : immediate

"U.S. Threatens Egypt over acquisition of Russian Su-35s."

Analyse Defense, Fabrice Wolf, April 10, 2019

(source cross-checking)

Egypt is said to have signed a contract with Russia for the purchase of some 20 Su-35 heavy fighter jets worth two billion dollars, according to Russian sources. Delivery of the new equipment is scheduled for 2020-2021. Like Turkey, which plans to acquire Russian S-400 anti-aircraft systems, Egypt is threatened with sanctions by the United States. U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced in the Senate that the Countering Adversaries of America Through Sanctions Act(CAATSA), which allows the U.S. executive branch to impose economic sanctions on countries deemed hostile to the United States, would apply to Egypt if Russian equipment is acquired. US pressure on potential buyers of Russian equipment could also affect its allies, including the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, which, according to the article, have also considered the acquisition of S-400s. At the same time, the United States is showing a great deal of flexibility with regard to Indian acquisitions: President Modi has thus received assurances that no sanctions would be applied to India following the purchase of five regiments of S-400s. CAASTA, combined with theInternational Traffic in Arms Regulation( ITAR ), which allows the United States to prevent the export of equipment containing US components, is in the short term an effective weapon to induce some countries to forego the acquisition of cheaper Russian or Chinese equipment. In the long term, however, these pressures could encourage some countries to find alternatives to US defence equipment.

Availability : N/A

"Russia launches production of S-350 Vityaz air defense systems."

Defence Blog, 12 April 2019

(single source)

Russia has started production of its future short- and medium-range S-350 Vityaz air defence systems. According to Russian Deputy Defence Minister Alexey Krivoruchko, the feedback from the first tests carried out at the end of March was positive. The S-350s will replace the S-300PS (75 km range), which has been in use since 1983. With a range of 60 to 120 km and a maximum altitude of 30 km, this new system will be used to protect civilian and military sites from air strikes. It will be implemented by three operators and will be deployable in five minutes. Finally, although the S-350 Vityaz were initially scheduled to enter service in 2013, the first tests had been postponed. In March, Lieutenant-Colonel Vladimir Lyaporov of the Military Academy of the Aerospace Forces in Zhukov announced that the S-500 (range 600 km) and the S-350 would soon enter service with the forces. Delivery of the first S-350 systems is scheduled for the end of 2019.

Availability : 1 year

"Tel Aviv University scientists print first ever 3D heart using patient's own cells."

Tel Aviv University, 16 April 2019

(source cross-checking)

Scientists at Tel Aviv University have produced the first 3D printed heart prototype from human cells. This achievement represents a major breakthrough in the treatment of cardiovascular disease and the prevention of heart transplant rejection. This cherry-sized heart, inert and immersed in a liquid, was created by a 3D printer directly from patient tissue. This first impression using human cells makes the heart potentially "biocompatible" with the patient in need of the transplant from which the cells would come. In addition, for the first time, the heart has been "printed" in its entirety, along with the cells and blood vessels. Finally, Tal Dvir, a member of the Israeli scientific team, estimates that it will be at least ten years before a human heart transplant using a 3D printer can be considered. However, he argues that by then it is likely that hospitals will be equipped with 3D printers, which will make it possible to produce simpler organs.

Availability : 10 years

"New 35 mm anti-aircraft weapon system Seraj Sadegh 10 unveiled by Iranian army"

Army Recognition, 21 April 2019

(single source)



On the occasion of "Army Day" in Iran, the latest version of the Seraj Sadegh air defence system was presented. The Seraj Sadegh 10 is a medium-range device (4 km maximum) equipped with a 35 mm gun manufactured by the Swiss industrialist Oerlikon . With a firing capacity of 1,100 rounds per minute, it is capable of intercepting cruise missiles and drones at low altitude. The anti-aircraft gun is integrated into a new 6x6 chassis. The weapon system is mounted on the rear of the vehicle.

Availability : immediate

"OFFSET Seeks Proposals to Accelerate Swarm Tactics in Virtual Environments."

DARPA, April1, 2019

(single source)

For the fourth time, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency(DARPA) has invited American defence innovation players to participate in a debate on swarm drone technology. The agency is organising month-long "innovation sprints" during which industrialists, start-ups and universities are working on the subject. This approach is part of DARPA's OFFensive Swarm-Enabled Tactics (OFFSET) programme. The programme's ultimate objective is the development of a swarm of 250 autonomous systems, both airborne and ground-based, designed to support ground units in urban areas. Such a swarm would prove effective in supporting tactical units manoeuvring in confined spaces or vertically (high buildings). Among the issues at stake in this "sprint" are the real autonomy of the swarm and its relationship with the combatants.1st 1st 1st

Availability : N/A

"Meet the Marine Lizard: Is China's New Tank All Hype?"

Michael Peck, National Interest, April 18, 2019.

(source cross-checking)

The Chinese state-owned China Shipbuilding Industry Company (CSIC) announced on April 8 the successful testing of the prototypeUnmanned SurfaceVehicle (Unmanned Surface Vehicle) Marine Lizard. Launched at the Airshow China exhibition in November 2018 in Zhuhai, the Marine Lizard USV could be used to support forces in amphibious assault operations by providing neutralisation fire. It would be equipped with two machine guns, a vertical launch system for anti-ship and anti-aircraft missiles, and radar and optical sensors. Designed to be completely autonomous in its movements with the help of artificial intelligence capable of avoiding obstacles and navigating thanks to the Chinese Beidou satellite system, this prototype would be characterized by a dual hybrid diesel-electric water-jet propulsion system. In addition, it could travel ashore at a speed of 20 km/h using four track units, and 50 knots (92.6 km/h) on the water. The development of the Marine Lizard USV is expected to be completed by the end of the year.

Availability : 2019

"Marine Corps plan to replace LAV with new, transformational ARV."

Military News, 16 April 2019

(source cross-checking)

The U.S. Marine Corps plans to replace its Light Armored Vehicles(LAVs) with a new model of armoured reconnaissance vehicle by the end of the next decade. Developed by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada and in service since the 1980s, the LAV is expected to be retired from units in 2030. Its replacement, theARV(Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle), will need to be capable of dealing with threats previously dealt with by higher class armoured vehicles. John Myers says, "TheARV will be an augmented combat vehicle system, capable of fighting for the purpose of gathering information. It is equipped with complex sensor, fire, movement and communication capabilities, while remaining transportable by an expeditionary naval force. It will equip light armoured reconnaissance battalions within Marine Corps divisions to conduct joint combat, reconnaissance and security missions for land forces. The Marine Corps plans to issue a first call for tenders in May 2019.

Availability : 10 years old

"British Army planning to update only 148 of its 227 Challenger 2 tanks"

David Axe, National Interest, April 21, 2019

(single source)

According to the British Times newspaper, the British Army decided to renew only 148 of its 227 Challenger 2 battle tanks for budgetary reasons. The remaining tanks would then be dismantled to provide spare parts and some could be reassembled in case of emergency. The Challenger 2 is a tank with heavy armour and increased mobility, designed to destroy and damage armoured targets. It can also engage lighter units. Equipped with a 120mm L30 gun capable of firing armour-piercing shells or explosive ordnance, the Challenger 2 is also equipped with a 7.62mm L94A1 co-axial chain gun (automatic gun) and a 7.62mm L37A2 machine gun. Depending on the model, this tank can also be equipped with a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun and a 40 mm calibre grenade launcher. After a first significant cut in 2010, this new reduction would confirm a trend towards a decrease in heavy armoured means in the British Army, while it had 400 Challenger 2 tanks in 1991.

Availability : N/A

"Russia delivers more T-90s main battle tanks to Iraqi army"

Army Recognition, 19 April 2019

(single source)

Following an order for 73 T-90s and a first delivery in 2017, the Iraqi Army has received a fourth delivery of T-90s. The T-90s is an improved version of the T-90 battle tank of the Russian industrialist UralVagonZavod intended for export. It is a popular choice in Asian countries., because it is adapted to high temperatures (presence of air conditioning). It has also been the subject of contracts with the Indian army since 2001 and more recently with Vietnam in 2017 (64 units, according to Jane's).

Availability : immediate

"FN Expert: Marksmanship training system"

FN Herstal

(single source)

The Belgian arms manufacturer FN Herstal has developed a new FNdrive system.Expert dedicated to precision shooters, allowing instructions to be sent to both the shooter and his instructor. The simulation system focuses on the fundamental techniques of shooting (vision, breathing, pressure on the trigger, etc.) and on feedback after shooting. The wireless system can be used for practice with blanks or live ammunition, indoors or outdoors and at shooting distances of up to 300 meters. It consists of an optical device, a PC or tablet and silhouette targets. The FNhousingExpert can be placed on the top or side of a rifle. Reflectors are placed directly on the targets at the desired locations depending on the training. The whole system can be connected via USB or Bluetooth. According to the Army recognition site, the system would measure the movement of the rifle, detect the shot and the location of the shot and analyze the shooter's performance. It would thus improve the shooter's capabilities and make it easier for the instructor to evaluate the shooter's performance. Finally, the system would allow for variation in training and could be configured in "team" mode.

Availability : immediate

"Advanced electronic warfare systems to enter service with Russian troops in 2019...

TASS, 15 April 2019

(single source)

According to Sergei Portnykh, the General Officer in charge of electronic warfare, advanced radio jamming systems known as Pole-21 will be available for the first time in 2019 in Russia's Central Military District (the Volga, Urals and Siberian Integrated Federal Districts and 29 Russian regions). The arrival of this equipment is part of the rearmament programme of the Russian armed forces. The General Officer is said to have confided to the Russian press agency TASS that the aim of this jamming system is to "counter airborne drones and reduce the effectiveness of the use of cruise missiles". Indeed, the Pole-21 modules would be able to jam the signals transmitted by the GPS, Galileo and Beidou satellite channels. Thus, they would be able to protect vital installations of the Russian armed forces and civilian infrastructure against satellite-guided weapons, such as enemy cruise missiles, smart bombs and drones.

Availability : 2019

"Russia's National Guard to use armored vehicles with remote-controlled combat module."

TASS, 16 April 2019

(single source)

According to statements by Sergei Melikov, the first deputy director of the Russian National Guard, Patrul armoured law enforcement vehicles with a remotely operated combat module will enter into service with the Guard "in the immediate future". No details are given as to the characteristics of this module. In addition to the Patrul, the Lada-Vesta and Lada-Granta patrol vehicles are also expected to be equipped with the remote operation system. Melikov also states that the Guard will be equipped with 2,000 "modern" vehicles, but without specifying the delivery schedule. The equipment concerned would be Patrul, Tigr and Esaul armoured vehicles, Federal-42591 armoured buses and ATNP-5350cars.

Availability: N/A

"France wins the Locked Shields 2019 international cyber defense exercise."

Ministry of the Armed Forces, 16 April 2019

(source cross-checking)

The French team of cyber specialists from the French National Agency for the Security of Information Systems (ANSSI) and the Cyber Defence Command (COMCYBER) won the 2019 edition of NATO's largest cyber defence exercise, Locked Shields. This simulation game brings together NATO cyber experts and national security services each year to test the protection of information systems and digital infrastructure under conditions of cyber attack. The exercise also aimed to develop links between the civil and military worlds, which face similar cyber threat issues. The exercise was held in Estonia and brought together more than 1,000 participants. The 2019 scenario was to defend a fictitious nation, Berylia, which was undergoing coordinated cyber attacks against civilian infrastructure during national elections.

Availability : N/A

"The Ministry of the Armed Forces receives 13 Murin radars."

Ministry of the Armed Forces, 12 April 2019

(single source)

Thirteen Murin light tactical surveillance radars were delivered to the Army in the first half of 2019, as part of the renewal of operational capabilities provided for in the Military Programming Law 2019 - 2025. Of the thirty radars included in the Murin programme contract awarded to Thales, the first four have undergone a technical and operational evaluation and the last thirteen will be delivered by the end of 2019. The Murin has a range of 300 m to 25 km and is capable of monitoring a 360° sector to detect, identify and track vehicles and infantrymen. These new-generation radars are designed to renew the Army's intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities. Integrated on the Serval vehicle of the Scorpion program, the Murin radars will also be used to adjust artillery fire and help protect rights-of-way.

Availability : immediate

"Switzerland relies on Thales for an image intelligence system"

Thales, 9 April 2019

(single source)

A contract between the Swiss Army and Thales was concluded at the end of March 2019 to provide the country with an image-based intelligence centre based on its multi-sensor interpretation aid system (MINDS). The latter would use artificial intelligence to exploit image data and disseminate the most relevant intelligence., in support of military decision-making. This centre will be operational in early 2020

Availability : 2020

"MBDA and ALPhANOV inaugurate in Bordeaux a test laboratory for laser weapons"

MBDA, April 11, 2019

(single source)

AVulnerability Test Facility for laser weapons was inaugurated on March 27 by MBDA and ALPhANOV, the optical and laser technology center of the ALPHA competitiveness cluster. It is used to simulate the imperfections of a beam's pointing in dynamics as well as to reproduce the conditions of a real shot on a moving target. This test laboratory models the interactions between the energy deposited by the laser and matter in order to define the constraints on each of the elements of a laser weapon. This will also make it possible to optimize the future architectures of laser weapon systems. The objectives of these tests are strategic autonomy and full control of development. dhe laser weapons.

Availability: immediate

"Colossus, the robot that helped the firefighters put out the fire of Notre Dame."

Huffington Post, April 17, 2019

(source cross-checking)

Mobilized on Monday, April 15 to fight the fire at Notre-Dame de Paris, the 400 firefighters deployed used the Colossus robot. The latter, developed by the French group Shark Robotics, was used inside the nave to extinguish the flames. The Colossus is designed to intervene in place of the firefighters when the situation becomes too dangerous (landslides, gas leaks, high temperatures). Particularly modular, it is able to extinguish a fire and bring equipment. In addition, its camera and gas detection sensors make it a valuable means of recognition. Weighing 500 kg and 1.6 m long, it has 8 hours of autonomy and can climb stairs. The Colossus is now used by the Paris Fire Brigade (BSPP) and in Bordeaux. In addition, in order to fight the fire in the cathedral, the BSPP has also implemented a drone made available by the Prefecture of Police (see second link). The use of the aerodyne enabled the military to monitor the spread of the fire and to adapt their operational response accordingly.

Availability : N/A

"Looping, the Army dog that detects cancer"

Ministry of the Armed Forces, 19 April 2019

(source cross-checking)

Looping, a Belgian Malinois shepherd from the Army whose master is at the head of the Cynotechnical Support Squad (PSC) of La Malmaison, was awarded this Thursday, April 18, at the 2019 Hero Dog Trophies in the category "Disease Detector Dog". Specially trained to detect prostate cancer in humans, he is contributing to a study in which the Army has been actively participating since 2016 in collaboration with the Tenon Hospital and the Army Health Service on the dog's olfactory capacities to detect this type of cancer. Looping's training first began with the memorization of the smell of urine of patients with proven prostate cancer, then he learned to differentiate it from that of healthy patients. Screening for prostate cancer is currently not based on tools with optimal sensitivity and specificity for early and reliable detection. For the purpose of developing early diagnostic tools, Looping's excellent results in his missions are a testament to the Army's contribution to cancer medical research.

Availability : N/A

"HENSOLDT delivers air defense IFF interrogator to French Armed Forces"

Hensoldt, 16 April 2019

(single source)

According to a press release published on its official website, the German electronics company Hensoldt is expected to deliver 134 MSR 1000I " friend / foe " (IFF) tactical interrogator radars to the French army in the near future. These devices, which would have been qualified in December 2018 by the DGA, could be integrated into the MISTRAL launchers as well as the Army's Tactical Radar Mapping System against Helicopters and Fixed Wing Aircraft (MARTHA). Currently equipped with a "Mode 4" encryption system, these radars should be upgraded to a "Mode 5" by 2020 to support compliance with NATO standards.

Availability : 2020

Interview with the Minister of the Armed Forces Florence Parly

Radio Classique, April 18, 2019

(single source)

In an interview on 18 April 2019, the Minister of the Armed Forces Florence Parly spoke of the implementation of a "more offensive strategy in space". She stressed that space has always been considered as an environment used for scientific and geospatial guidance purposes. However, she noted that space has become a "place of confrontation between powers". There have been reports of behaviour against satellites that is not aggressive, or at least intrusive. Thus, the Minister intends to equip satellites with cameras to inform and protect them from possible intrusions. The Minister emphasises that satellites are "indispensable for the proper functioning of our societies and our military capabilities", thus putting the defence of space on the agenda.

Availability : N/A

"What Will Climate Change Mean for Security in Africa?"

Katie Bo Williams, Defense One, April 9, 2019.

(single source)

Michelle Lenihan, Senior Director for African Affairs in the Office of the US Secretary of Defense, spoke in an interview about the consequences of climate change on security in the Sahel. A recent Pentagon report had warned that the effects of climate change could be a national security issue, impacting on the Department of Defense's missions, operational plans and facilities, and above all impacting on regional stability in the Sahel. The consequences of climate change, such as the desertification of the region, pose problems in terms of the availability of water and arable land, fuelling pre-existing socio-ethnic conflicts between certain populations in the area. This is an opportunity to reflect on the role that armies can play in combating the security impacts of climate change.

Availability : N/A

"The Army's Plan To Save The Wounded In Future War"

Sydney J. Freedberg, Breaking Defense, 12 April 2019

(single source)

"Given the technological dimension of future combat, it will be much more difficult to rescue wounded soldiers,"U.S. Army Chief of Staff General Mark Milley told Congress last week. "The evacuation of wounded soldiers will require not only very rapid airlift and armored ambulances, but also a reorganization of the medical corps to deploy doctors closer to the front," he said. Both aspects of the evacuation and medical care of wounded American soldiers are currently being reorganized within theUS Army. The US Army aims to detach its medical personnel from hospitals for permanent deployment in the field. Furthermore, in order to offset the potential loss of air supremacy due to the proliferation and strengthening of A2/AD capabilities and ground-to-air defence systems, the United States is developing several programmes. The Future Vertical Lift programme is expected to replace helicopters with faster, longer-range vertical take-off aircraft. In addition, the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehic le(AMPV) programme of the British group BAE Systems plans to develop Bradley M2 armoured vehicles, two versions of which will be an ambulance and a mobile surgical unit respectively.

Availability : N/A

"One month, 500,000 Face Scans: How China is using AI to profile a minority"

Paul Mozur, New York Times, 14 April 2019

(single source)

According to a New York Times survey, a growing number of Chinese "unicorns" (start-ups valued at more than a billion dollars) specialising in artificial intelligence such as Yitu, Megvi, SenseTime and CloudWalk are using their facial recognition software to monitor the Uighur Muslim minority (11 million individuals) by the government. This would be the first case of use of artificial intelligence by a government for racial profiling. Facial recognition software, integrated into growing networks of surveillance cameras, detects Uighurs based on their appearance and monitors their whereabouts. In Sanmexia, on the banks of the Yellow River, nearly 500,000 facial scans are believed to have been taken of Uighurs. Demand for this type of software is growing: about 24 police departments in nearly 16 different provinces are reported to have required such software by early 2018. China has dedicated significant resources to the Uighurs, particularly in Xinjiang province, the scene of ethnic clashes.

Availability : N/A

"Undersea Internet cables: "The voltage risks are extremely real."

Usbek and Rica, Annabelle Laurent, 30 March 2019

(single source)

As part of a report on the future of the Internet, the Usbek & Rica magazine has interviewed Jean-Luc Vuillemin, Director of International Networks at Orange. According to the latter, the Internet's submarine cables constitute a major military vulnerability for the West. Indeed, they could be targeted by hostile powers in the event of conflict or geopolitical tensions. Russia has thus shown for years a strong interest in Western submarine cables and is approaching them with heavy military means. In order to protect its cables, the United States would even consider creating corridors using sonic barriers. According to Jean-Luc Vuillemin, the threat is asymmetrical: the Chinese economy would not be very sensitive to cuts, like Russia, which has undertaken a policy of relocating data on its territory. Europe, on the other hand, would be particularly affected, as most of its Internet traffic is dependent on the United States. For example, 80% of French Internet traffic goes to the United States. Europe is therefore caught in a pincer between the GAFA, which currently dominates most traffic, and the BATX, their Asian counterparts, which are opening more and more data centres in Europe. "You have the Americans on one side, the Chinese on the other, and two continents in the middle, Europe and Africa. We are the battlefield," warned Jean-Luc Vuillemin, calling for the implementation of a genuine digital sovereignty strategy on a European scale.

Availability : N/A

"What kind of army to fight tomorrow at high intensity?" - Army Observatory Seminar (OBSTAT-35)

CDEC, April 16, 2019

(source cross-checking)

The CDEC took part in the "Army 2035" Observatory seminar (OBSTAT-35) on 16 April, opened by the Chief of Army Staff. The main theme of the seminar was "What kind of army to fight tomorrow in high intensity combat? through two round tables, speakers from a variety of backgrounds (experts, analysts, academics, etc.) will discuss the question of "what kind of army to fight in high intensity tomorrow?, etc.) were able to exchange on the preparation for the return of high-intensity combat and on the imperative of mass for the army. The objective is to engage ae deeper reflection on this theme by soliciting "collective intelligence". The CEMAT returned to this major issue by stressing that "high intensity, at the tactical, operational or strategic level, is the most dangerous and dimensional confrontation, the one that requires the highest degree of training, political, industrial and human mobilisation. "Innovation was highlighted as a major component, notably through robotic systems, semi-autonomous platforms or artificial intelligence. As a key factor of operational superiority, mass has once again become a major element with regard to current and future commitments.

Availability : N/A

"April 30, 1524: Death of Chevalier Bayard."

picturesque France

April 30, 2019 will commemorate the 495th the anniversary of Pierre Terrail's death, said the Bayard Knight. This hero of the Italian Wars and paragon of chivalric virtues was killed on April 30, 1524 by an escopette shot (from the Italian "schiopetto"). To the constable of Bourbon, traitor to the crown of France, and who pitied him for his forthcoming death, he is said to have declared "My lord, you must not have pity on me, who dies a good man; but I have pity on you, who are armed against your prince, your fatherland and your oath". Relatively heavy (from 5 to 9 kg), the weapon that struck down the knight "without fear and without reproach", while he was covering the retreat of the French army, belongs to the family of harquebuses. These firearms equipped the French cavalry from the reigns of Charles VIII to Louis XIII before being gradually replaced by muskets. The latter were just as heavy but capable of firing larger calibre projectiles, allowing them to pierce any armour, before being replaced around 1700 by the first rifles.

"Fritz Haber, Nobel laureate and... father of chemical warfare."

Daily Geek Show

On 22 April 1915, during the second battle of Ypres, German troops released 150 tonnes of chlorine gas and 6,000 pressurised barrels onto the French lines. This first massive use of chemical agents (phosgene, mustard gas) marked a real turning point in modern warfare. These chemical weapons were the result of work on chlorine by the German chemist Fritz Haber. Perceived as one of the most renowned scientists of his discipline, notably for his work on ammonia that revolutionized the industrial production of fertilizers, Fritz Haber made history in 1909 with his revolutionary method of combining nitrogen with hydrogen. This "Haber-Bosch process", which helped save millions of people from famine at the beginning of the 20th century, earned him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1919. His work was later taken up by the Nazis to create Zyklon B, a gas used in extermination camps during the Second World War.

 


 
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